SH2-170

SH2-170 is a faint emission nebula in constellation Cassiopeia. There is no consensus about the ionization source and thus about the distance.

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SH2-162 (NGC 7635, Bubble Nebula) in false colors (SHO)
This image is a false color composite where [SII] is mapped to red, H-alpha is mapped to green and [OIII] is mapped to blue. Stars are partially subtracted using continuum images.
SH2-162 (NGC 7635, Bubble Nebula) in false colors (OHS)
Same view as above, but [SII] and [OIII] are swapped in order to show more details of the oxygen structures (reddish).

Image data

FOV: 0.56° × 0.5° (full view)
Date: 2018-2021
Location: Pulsnitz, Germany
Instrument: 400mm Newton at f=1520mm
Camera Sensor: Panasonic MN34230
Orientation: North is up (approximately)
Scale: 0.8 arcsec/pixel (at full resolution)
Total exposure times:
H-alpha (3nm): 8.1 h
[OIII] (3nm): 12.1 h
[SII] (3nm): 14.1 h
NIR: 0.7 h
Blue: 0.6 h

Image processing

All image processing steps are deterministic, i.e. there was no manual retouching or any other kind of non-reproducible adjustment. The software which was used can be downloaded here.

Image processing steps where:

  1. Bias correction, photon counting
  2. Dark current subtraction, flatfield correction, noise estimation
  3. Alignment and brightness calibration using stars from reference image
  4. Stacking with masking unlikely values and background correction
  5. Extracting stars from the emission line images using information from continuum images
  6. Denoising and deconvolution both components (stars and residual)
  7. RGB-composition
  8. Dynamic range compression using non-linear high-pass filter
  9. Tonal curve correction

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