M27 (also known as Dumbbell Nebula) is a planetary nebula in constellation Vulpecula with an apparent diameter of about 16' (arcminutes).
The nebulae lies at a distance of about 1300 ly from Earth (distance of the central star according to Gaia DR3).
0.31° × 0.31°
400mm Newton at f=1520mm
North is up (approximately)
0.8 arcsec/pixel (at full resolution)
Total exposure times:
All image processing steps are deterministic, i.e. there was no manual retouching or any other kind of non-reproducible adjustment. The software which was used can be downloaded here.
Image processing steps where:
Bias correction, photon counting
Dark current subtraction, flatfield correction, noise estimation
Alignment and brightness calibration using stars from reference image
Stacking with masking unlikely values and background correction
Extracting stars from the emission line images using information from continuum images
Denoising and deconvolution both components (stars and residual)
Dynamic range compression using non-linear high-pass filter